Švihov reservoir

Přehled pilotních míst na lokalitě VN Švihov
Overview of pilot locations at the site of DWR Švihov

The Švihov drinking water reservoir (on the Zelivka river) is the largest Czech surface water pond, located in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland, used for water supply for more than 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic. Water from this reservoir is transferred by pipeline system to Prague and several other small towns. Water quality in the water reservoir Švihov on the Želivka River, according to recent data from the Vltava River Board, s. e., is threatened by the following factors: eutrophication, erosion material, imbalance of the hydrological regime and pesticides. Concentrations of nitrogen are quite high almost in the entire catchment, coming predominantly from non-point pollution sources but N is of a less significance in terms of eutrophication, compared to phosphorus and currently it do not threaten the limits for drinking water. Nevertheless, N is a significant barrier for achievement the good ecological status of most water bodies in Švihov catchment. Phosphorus is delivered in this catchment to streams either by water erosion in particulate forms, which is not so serious for eutrophication as bioavailable P, which sources are on the other hand predominantly point sources. In the past ten years, there were many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) built and especially for towns and larger villages. However, within the Zelivka river basin itself (about 1200 km2), there are tens of small villages or dwellings, with less than 500 residents, which often don’t have a guaranteed water supply and/or WWTP (especially for phosphorus eliminating). The disposal of wastewaters is being managed mostly by septic tanks.

In the pilot area of the Švihov reservoir the research activities of the WP1 and WP2 will be implemented.

WP1: Testing the efficiency in removal of nutrients and pharmaceuticals from waste water
Constructed wetlands in the Švihov Reservoir watershed have been in operation between 10 and 22 years but their performance has been documented only occasionally. Therefore, the main objective of this research to evaluate properly the treatment ability of these systems with focus on the effect of the effluents on the water quality in the receiving streams which are tributaries to the drinking water reservoir. All constructed wetland in the watershed have been designed to treat municipal sewage from 100-400 PE (population equivalent) and all of them use horizontal subsurface flow. Within the given watershed there are several hundred small villages with no wastewater treatment plant. The project should also give the answer to the question whether constructed wetland are suitable wastewater treatment technology in drinking water reservoir watersheds.

Kořenová čistírna Onšov
Constructed wetland Onšov
Kopaninský stream catchment – tile drainage

 

WP2: Monitoring of waste water types, surface- and groundwater pollution in the catchment sites
The Švihov drinking water reservoir (on the Zelivka river) is the largest Czech surface water pond, used for water supply for more than 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic. Water from this reservoir is transferred by pipeline system to Prague and several other small towns. However, within the Zelivka river basin itself (about 1200 km2), there are tens of small villages or dwellings, with less than 500 residents, which often don’t have a guaranteed water supply and/or WWTP (especially for phosphorus eliminating). Water quality in the water reservoir Švihov on the Želivka River, according to recent data from the Vltava River Board, s. e., is threatened by the following factors: eutrophication, erosion material, imbalance of the hydrological regime and pesticides. Concentrations of nitrogen are quite high almost in the entire catchment area but N is of less significance in terms of eutrophication, compared to phosphorus and currently they do not threaten the limits for drinking water. Nevertheless, they are a significant barrier to achieving a good ecological status of most water bodies in the catchment area of water reservoir Švihov.Within the Švihov reservoir watershed, two small predominantly agricultural catchments will be monitored – the Kopaninský potok catchment and the Černičí catchment. The Kopaninský potok catchment is located in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland, Pelhřimov district, close to the Velký Rybník village. It represents a typical local small agricultural catchment with agricultural tile drainage systems. Surface and tile drainage water quality and quantity are monitored, as well as weather parameters, groundwater level dynamics, soil characteristics, land use changes and farming practices. Current research is focused on studying mutual relationships among above-mentioned factors, with a special regard to land use in the recharge (infiltration) zones and aspect of hydrology and water quality of tile drainage.